The Nile, longest river in the world, located in northeastern Africa. From its
principal source, Lake Victoria, in east central Africa, the Nile flows north through Uganda, Sudan, and Egypt to the Mediterranean
Sea, a distance of 5584 km (3470 mi). From its remotest headstream in Burundi, the river is 6,695 km (4,160 mi) long. The river basin covers an area of more than 3,349,000
sq km (more than 1,293,000 sq mi).
In pre-historic times, primeval forests covered the river banks when the river nile was a vast swamp composed of
rushes, papyrus, and weeds. However, due to thousands of years of human intervention, the Nile throughout Egypt flows peacefully through green fields—looking much like
a rich, well cultivated European plain.
The Delta, an area of about 10,000 square
miles, is a broad swamp intersected by canals. The Mediterranean Sea influences this region bringing a regular winter rainy
season. The Upper Nile valley is one great waterway, with insignificantly small irrigation canals scattered along its length.
It is much drier than the Delta, with little to no rain. The lack of seasons makes it much easier to cultivate the land in
the Upper Nile. Thus it was cultivated first and is much less swampy than the Delta, which is still being converted into arable